Tuesday, May 5, 2015



A notice should be written in the following format:

a)the name of the organization issuing the notice
b) the title ‘NOTICE’
c)the date
d)a heading to introduce the subject of the notice
e)the body of the notice
 f)the writer’s signature, name (in block letters) and designation

DELHI POLICE (The organization issuing the notice)


1st July, 2014 (Date)

TRAFFIC ADVISORY (The title of the notice)

In view of the continuing dense fog, the vehicle drivers and pedestrians are cautioned to show extreme restraint and alertness while using the road. Please drive slowly and keep the blinkers & fog lamps on. Pedestrians are requested to
use the footpath and zebra crossing. Remember ‘Safety Saves’. (Content/Body)

Rounak Prasad (Name and Signature)

(Commissioner – Traffic) (Designation)




The subject of the sentence is found in the beginning of a sentence. It tells who or what the sentence is about.
The Predicate is the action part or it tells what the subject is or does.

The following group of words is a mixture of complete and incomplete sentences.

Complete the incomplete sentences and add correct punctuation to all the sentences.
1. Donna thought of ...
2. Everywhere I go...
3. He closed the door...
4. The yellow raincoat...
5. English grammar is tedious...

What do the sentences below, in the conversation tell you?
Shailesh and his father were standing near the snakes’ enclosure in the zoo.
(gives information in a statement)
Shailesh: What a beautiful hood that snake has!
(shows surprise and wonder)
Father: It is a king cobra. King cobras have magnificent hoods.
(gives information in a statement)
Shailesh: Is a king cobra poisonous?
(asks questions)
Father: Yes, it is. It is one of the most poisonous snakes. But most snakes are not poisonous. (gives information in a statement)
Shailesh: Show me some non – poisonous snakes. (orders, requests)
Sentences that tell something or make a statement are declarative sentences. They end with a full stop.
 Sentences that ask a question are Interrogative sentences. They have a question mark at the end of each sentence. Sentences that make a command or tell someone to do something are Imperative sentences. They also end with a full stop.
Sentences that express a feeling and use an exclamation point at the end of a sentence are exclamatory sentences.

Notice how each of these words leaves you wanting more information:
Since you’ve been so good... (What? Will I get a present?)
Before you can go to the movies... (What do I need to do?)
Even though you washed the dishes... (What did I forget to do?)
All of these examples are dependent clauses because they all have a subject, a verb, and contain a subordinating conjunction.

Now look at these sentences. They give complete information.

I went to the movies last Saturday.
You washed the dishes.
He has eaten a hamburger.
All of these examples are independent clauses because they have a subject,a verb that matches it, and express a complete thought.

(Remember, these words when added to a complete sentence, make a dependent clause)after, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, eventhough, if, in order that, once, provided that, since, so, so that, that, though,till, unless, until, when, where, whereas, while,etc



gushed: flow of water in a rapid and plentiful stream
forth: forward
fairer: bright and light
outran: run or travel faster or further than
assured: confident
will: desire

Q1.What state of mind of the lame boy is depicted?
He was very sad.
Q2.Why is he lonely?
He has no playmates/friends.
Q3Where did all his playmates go?
To the magical land that the Pied Piper Promised.


I) I can’t forget that I’m bereft
Of all the pleasant sights they see,
Which the Piper also promised me.


Q1What can the lame boy not forget?
the lame boy did not forget that he was bereft of all the pleasant sights.

Q2What did the Pied Piper promise the children?
Beautiful pleasant sights.

Q3Why is the lame boy bereft of the pleasant sights?
As he is left alone in the town of Hamelin.

II) For he led us, he said, to a joyous land,
Joining the town and just at hand,
Where waters gushed and fruit-trees grew,
And flowers put forth a fairer hue,
And everything was strange and new;


Q1Where would the Pied Piper lead the children?
The Pied Piper led the children to a joyous land with pleasant sights.
Q2What is special about the flowers of the joyous land?
they are of varied and bright colours.
Q3Where was this new land situated?
The new land was situated very close to Hamelin.

III) The sparrows were brighter than peacocks here,
And their dogs outran our fallow deer,
And honey-bees had lost their stings,
And horses were born with eagles’ wings:


Q1What did the Pied Piper tell about the birds?
the sparrows were brighter than the peacocks.
Q2What happened to the honey bees?
They had lost their stings.
Q3What was special about the dogs?

They outran the deer.
My lame foot would be speedily cured,
The music stopped and I stood still,
And found myself outside the hill,


Q1What do you understand from the above  lines?
The lame boy was assured that his lame foot would be cured in this magical land. But as soon as he was about to reach the hill, the Pied Piper’s music stopped and he found himself left behind.

Q2What is the rhyme scheme in the above lines?
The rhyme scheme in the above lines -- a bb

Brief questions:
Q a)What strange things happen in this land?
There sparrows were brighter than peacocks, dogs outrun the deer, honeybees lose their stings, horses are born with eagle’s wings.
Q b)What was the lame boy sure of?
that his foot would be speedily cured .
Q C )What is the lame boy lamenting about?why?
The lame boy is lamenting for his loss. He was left behind against his will, limping just like before and will never hear of the magical country again.

fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the above bracket.

(will ,assure , outrun , gush, forth)
1. Water from the tank ________out and rapidly filled the ditch and truck cab.
2. Let me______ you it is one of the best out there.
3. The obligations of the trainee are clearly set______.
 4. He made me go against my____.

5. Information technology is going to _________ the capabilities of workers at nearly all levels.



What are stylistic devices?

In literature and writing, a figure of speech (also called stylistic device or rhetorical device) is the use of any of a variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling.
Sometimes a word diverges from its normal meaning, or a phrase has a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it. Examples are metaphor, simile, or personification


What is Personification?

Personification is a figure of speech in which human characteristics are attributed to an abstract quality, animal, or inanimate object.
·         Examples
·         My car tends to give up on long hills.
·         Summer's healing rays


A simile likens one thing to another (usually achieved by the use of the word like or as). For example:

·         He eats like a gannet.
·         This sandwich tastes like sawdust between two doormats.
·         She sings like an angel.
·         It's like water off a duck's back.

What is antithesis?

Antithesis is a figure of speech which refers to the juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas. It involves the bringing out of a contrast in the ideas by an obvious contrast in the words, clauses, or sentences, within a parallel grammatical structure.
These are examples of antithesis:
·         "Man proposes, God disposes." - Source unknown.
·         "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." - Neil Armstrong.
"To err is human; to forgive divine." - Alexander Pope

What is a metaphor?

Unlike simile, metaphor is language that directly compares unrelated subjects. It is a figure of speech that compares two or more things not using like or as. In the simplest case, this takes the form:
X - is - Y

Examples of metaphor:

All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;

·         We don't need dinosaurs in this company.


What is an alliteration?

Alliteration is the repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words.
Alliteration draws attention to the phrase and is often used for emphasis.The initial consonant sound is usually repeated in two neighboring words although sometimes the repetition occurs also in words that are not neighbors.
·         sweet smell of success,
·         a dime a dozen,
·         bigger and better,


What is hyperbole?
Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. It may be used to evoke strong feelings or to create a strong impression, but is not meant to be taken literally. Hyperboles are exaggerations to create emphasis or effect.
Examples of hyperbole include:
  • The bag weighed a ton.
  • I was so hungry; I could eat a horse!
  • She's older than the hills.
  • I have a million problems.
  • I'll die if I don't finish this crossword
What is understatement?

Understatement is a figure of speech used by writers or speakers to deliberately make a situation seem less important or serious than it really is.
Examples of understatement
  • "It stings a bit" - a soldier describing the pain he feels after he has just lost his leg.
  • "It has rained a little more than the average" - describing a flooded area.


Assonance is a figure of speech that is found more often in verse than in prose. It refers to the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences.

Examples of Assonance

These are some examples:
  • "the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain" - The Raven By Edgar Allan Poe
  • "The crumbling thunder of seas" - Robert Louis Stevenson
"That solitude which suits abstruser musings" - The Princess
What is tautology?
Tautology is a statement that says the same thing twice in different ways, or a statement that is unconditionally true by the way it is phrased.
Examples of tautology
  • Forward planning.
  • It's a free gift.
  • The mobile phone is a new innovation.
·         In my point of view, it is completely useless

The man of the island--Question answers

The man of the island

Vocabulary words:

steep: rising or falling sharply
 gravel: a loose aggregation of small water-worn or pounded stones dislodged: knock or force out of position
 instinctively: arising from impulse or natural inclination
 leap: long jump
 retrace: go back
 flitting: moving swiftly and lightly
 brisk: quick and active
 clasped: grasp (something) tightly with one's hand
 hoarse: sounding rough and harsh
 awkward: diffucult to understand
 startling: very surprising, astonishing, or remarkable
 marooned: trapped and alone in an inaccessible place
aboard: on or into a ship, aircraft, train, or other vehicle
mate:partner, friend
 whisper: speak very softly using one's breath rather than one's throat solitude: the state or situation of being alone
 grasp: seize and hold firmly
 ain’t: is not.
 ally: friend, partner, mate
 voyage: a long journey involving travel by sea or in space

Comprehension Questions from book:

a) Jim saw the creature flitting/running like a man on his two legs, this convinced him that the creature was a man.

b) Ben Gunn wanted Jim to help him find a treasure that was lost on the island.

c) Ben Gunn was clothed in tatters of an old ship’s canvas and some patchwork was all held together with fastenings, brass buttons, bits of stick, and loops of tarry gaskin. On his waist he wore an old brass-buckled leather belt, which was the only solid thing in his whole attire.

d) Ben Gunn was marooned on the island by the other members of the ship he was travelling on.

Extra Questions:-

1What was a horrible punishment among the buccaneers?
A horrible punishment among the buccaneers to be marooned on an island.

2 What did the man live on, while being marooned?
The man lived on goats, berries and oysters.

 3 Why did Jim think that the man on the island was mad?
Jim thought that the man on the island was mad because he said that he was rich.

 4 Who was Silver?
Silver was the cook and the ringleader on the ship.

5 Why do you think Jim is caught between going towards the frightening island man and going back to the boat?
Long Jhon Silver, the pirate was waiting to kill him. The man on the island was wild and unreliable.

6 What propels him forward?
The fact that the frightening thing on the land was human.

 7 What is the difference between being shipwrecked and being marooned?
When a person travelling by ship meets with an accident, is known as
Shipwrecked. A person, when left behind by his crew, is known as marooned.

8  Name some characters from literature, movies, TV, etc. were marooned?
Robinson Crusoe, Cast away, lord of the flies, Six Days Seven Nights, The Beach Island of the Blue Dolphins, Life of Pi.

Describe the characters of the story:-

Ben Gunn- A reformed pirate. Stranded on the Island for three years.
Captain Flint- The most bloodthirsty pirate that ever was.
Jim Hawkins -A boy.
Long John Silver- A pirate with one wooden leg and a crutch. Hired as a cook.
Squire Trelawney- The gentleman who founds the treasure hunt.
Billy Bones- A scarred, drunken man.
Doctor Livesey- A very bright and decent man.