Wednesday, November 4, 2015



1-Write any one of the paragraphs (ANUCHED LEKHAN) from worksheet in your Grammar Note Book
2-Write any one letter (
अनौपचारिक)  from worksheet in Grammar Note Book.

Diwali Holiday Home work

Workbook Page 1-11 (do with pencil)
S.R - Read chapter6 (Swiss Family Robinson) and write the question answers in the notebook.

Complete the worksheet of ch 1,9,&12. Note: Activity no 2.1, 2.2, and 12.1 from activity plus textbook into activity plus notebook.

Worksheet chap1,2 and 3 (cycle Test 3) (to be done with pencil.)

Complete the portion of cycle test3 done in the class, in the Workbook.
Do Review exercise and formative assessment (in punched papers)from chapters Decimals and Linear Equations.

Swiss Family Robinson chapter-6

The Swiss Family Robinson
New Words
∂ livestock: domesticated animals
∂ risk: danger
∂ visible: seen clearly
∂ advent: arrival
∂ accomplish: to achieve
∂ depart: leave to start a journey
∂ fasten: to tie
∂ securely: tightly
∂ assemble: bring together
∂ urgency: something requiring immediate attention
∂ burden: trouble
∂ barrel: wooden boxes
∂ cargo: luggage
∂ brim: to the top
∂ reserved: kept specially for a particular person
∂ execute: put a plan into effect
∂ delight: happiness, joy
Comprehension Questions:

1.      Q1 Why was it necessary to bring the livestock from the ship?
Ans It was necessary to bring the livestock as there was a risk of losing them to the heavy sea.

2.       Q2What did father to keep the family safe while he was away at the ship?
Ans While Fritz was getting the boat ready, father looked about for a pole, and tied a piece of white cloth to the end of it and drove it into the ground, in a place where it would be visible from the ship. They agreed that in the advent of any danger, the wife would take down the pole and fire a gun three times as a signal of distress.

3.      Q3 What did they carry with them? Why?
Ans They took nothing with but the guns, some powder and a shot; because they knew that they would find provisions on board.

4.       Q4What was the first thing they did on reaching the ship?
Ans The first thing Fritz did was to go up onto the main deck and he found all the animals they had left on board assembled. They threw away the spoiled food and refilled their supply of water.

5.       Q5What was the first job that Fritz suggested?
Ans He suggested that they should construct a sail for the boat.

6.      Q6 Why did this suggestion surprise father?
Ans The suggestion surprised him as he knew there were more urgent tasks to be done.

Q7. Why did Fritz suggest putting up a sail?
Ans He explained how the task of rowing was a burden to both. Also there was a strong breeze and while returning the current would be in the opposite direction and wouldn’t be of much help.

Q8. What things did they gather from the ship? 
Ans They gathered nails, pieces of cloth, different kinds of utensils, sacks of maize, of wheat, other grain, and some potatoes, a barrel of sulphur and rope.

Saturday, October 31, 2015

Climate of India

a)     Climate:  Climate is defined as the weather conditions prevailing in an area over a long period of time.
b)    Mango Showers-Coastal areas receive rainfall known as ‘Mango
Showers’ during this time of the year that helps in early ripening of mango
c) loo- Hot, dry and dusty winds blowing over the Northern Plains during
this season are known as ‘loo’

d) seasonal variations-Temperature, the monsoon winds and the
amount of rainfall causes seasonal variations.

2. What type of climate does India have? Write its characteristics.
Ans: India has a ‘Tropical Monsoon Climate’. Its characteristics are:
a)     High temperatures throughout the year.
b)    Dry winters in most part of the country.
c)     Great climatic variations where some places are extremely hot while others being very cold.
3. What are the factors influencing the climate of India?
Ans: The geographical factors are:
a)     Location and latitudinal extent: As the tropic of Cancer divideds the country into 2 parts, the southern part experiences high temperature and the northern areas experience low temperatures throughout the year.
b)   Distance from the sea:
·         Coastal areas are neither too hot nor too cold.
·         They enjoy equable climate.  Example, Mumbai.
·        On the other hand, areas which are surrounded by land on all sides experience extreme or continental type of climate. Example,
New Delhi
c)     The Himalayas:
·        Acts as a barrier to the cold winds from Central Asia
·        Causes rainfall by obstructing monsoon winds from crossing the country.
d)    Altitude:
·        A gradual decrease in temperature with increase in the height.
·        Places like Ooty have cool climates though they are situated in peninsular India, and close to equator.
e)    Air pressure conditions and surface winds:
Temperatures and air pressure conditions cause different climatic condition. Eg:  In winter, winds blow from land to sea and are very dry. While in summer, the winds blow from the sea to the land causing heavy rainfall.
4. How does climate influence on the lives of human beings?
Ans: Climate has great influence on the lives of human beings.
Crops – climate of a particular area determines the types of crops that will be grown in that region
For example, tea is grown in high mountains whereas wheat is grown in the plains.
Houses – The shape and style of the house is also influenced by the climate of the region. For example, mountains and hills have houses with sloping roofs; dry lands have houses with flat roof.
Clothes – People who live in high mountains wear woolen clothes almost throughout the year, while those living in the plains and plateau region seldom wear woolen clothes.
6. Fill in the Blanks:
1.     The maximum temperature in Rajasthan- 48˚ C- 50˚ C.
2.     The maximum Temperature in Kashmir- 22 ˚ C
3.     The lowest temperature at Kargil-       -40˚C
4.     The lowest temperature in southern parts of India - 20˚C to 22˚C
5.     The annual rainfall at Mawsynram – 1221 cm
6.     The annual rainfall in Rajasthan – 12 cm
7.     Cold weather season (Winter): Mid December to February    
8.     Hot weather season (Summer): March to May
9.     The South - West monsoon season (Rainy): June to mid September
10.                        The season of retreating monsoon (Cool): October to mid December
7. Write short notes :
1.     Cold Weather Season or Winter Season:
·        main Characteristics of the winter season - Clear sky, fine weather, light
·        Northerly winds, low humidity and low temperature
·        January is the coldest month of this season - temperature ranges between 14°C and 27°C
·        storms known as ‘Western Disturbances’ originate in the Mediterranean Sea and enter the country. These winds cause little rainfall over the Indo – Gangetic Plains and snowfall in the Himalayas
2. Hot Weather Season or Summer Season:
·        main characteristic of this season- Cyclonic storms
·        rise in temperature all over the country in the month of March
·        main temperature is between 30to 35°C
·        May records temperature as high as 45°C.
·        Hot, dry and dusty winds blowing over the Northern Plains during this season are known as ‘loo’.
·        Coastal areas receive rainfall known as ‘Mango Showers’ during this time of the year that helps in early ripening of mangoes.

3.     The South - West Monsoon Season or Rainy Season:
·        The onset of this season is on the Kerala coast
·        During their journey, the South- West Monsoon winds pick enough water from the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
·        these winds enter the country and strike the mountains and the hills, causing heavy rainfall
·        India receives three fourths of the total rainfall during this season
·        Since these winds enter from the South West direction of the country they are known as South - West Monsoon winds
·        The temperature decreases 2°C to 6°C on an average from that in the summer season.
·        This season is also termed as pre - monsoon or season of advancing monsoon
4. The North - East Monsoon or Cool Season
·        The chief characteristics of this season - decrease in the humidity levels and clear skies over Northern and Central parts of India
·        Storms or tropical cyclones are formed in the Bay of Bengal that causes rain
·        Parts of peninsular India falls under the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats during summer season.
·        This rain shadow region receives rainfall from North - East Retreating Monsoon winds.
·        Coastal areas such as the Ganga - Brahmaputra delta, Odisha, Andhra
Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, receive good amount of rainfall during this season.
·        Tropical cyclones formed in the Bay of Bengal are a great threat to life and property as these are accompanied by surface winds and thunderstorms.
·        The temperature during the day falls sharply all over the country.
·        The average temperature in most parts of the country varies between 25°C and 30°C.

5.Anamalous Rainfall Regions:
·        the entire country receives rainfall from the South- West monsoon winds
except three regions which receive rainfall from North- East monsoon winds
because of Westerlies resulting out of the atmospheric disturbances in the
Mediterranean Region;      Tamil Nadu,        Assam
·        Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Western parts of Uttar Pradesh.
8. What is the importance of Monsoon?
Ans: A large number of Indian people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Thus, monsoon rains act as a unifying factor and yield good crops for them.
India is an agricultural country. Its economy is greatly influenced by monsoon
that results in adequate amount of crop production and facilitates its export.
The monsoon season prevails in the country for a short duration. This leads to
scarcity of water at certain times. Sudden heavy downpour may cause floods in
the country. Again, little or no rainfall may lead to droughts. Thus, management
of monsoon water by constructing dams, irrigation canals, etc. is important in our country.

9. Distribution of Rainfall in India:
Amount of
Rainfall (cm)
Areas in the country
Very high

Above 200
Western coastal plain, Western slope of Western
Ghats, and most of the North Eastern States.
High rainfall
100 – 200
Eastern slopes of Western Ghats, major parts of
Northern Plains, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Eastern coastal

Low rainfall
50 - 100
Larger parts of Gujarat, Maharashtra, some
parts of Madhya Pradesh, Andra Pradesh,
Karnataka, Eastern Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana
and parts of Uttar Pradesh
Very low
Below 50
Western Punjab, Kuchchh, Jammu and Kashmir,
South Punjab

Friday, October 30, 2015

Ch -12 The power of electricity- Extra questions.
Q 1. Give reason Why is tungsten used to make the filament of a bulb?
Ans - Tungsten has high melting point, it does not melt even when the filament glows at a very high temperature.

Q 2. What is terminal? In what way are the two terminals of the bulb useful?
Ans - Battery terminals are the electrical contacts used to connect wires to a single cell or multiple-cell battery.When the two terminals are joined to an electric cell, the electric current flows through the filament which gets heated up and starts glowing.

Q3. Define electric circuit
Ans - The complete path from one terminal of an electric cell through the bulb and back to the other terminal of the electric cell is called electric circuit.

Q 4. What do you understand by a fused bulb?
Ans - When the filament of a bulb breaks, the electric circuit is no more complete, since no current can pass through the filament now, the bulb does not glow and is thus called a fused bulb)
Q 5. List two points to explain advantages of using a secondary cell over a primary cell.
Ans - The major advantage of the secondary cell that it is rechargeable, and in the long run, may not cost at much as constantly replacing a primary cell.

Q 6. What type of a cells are used in the equipment shown below. Draw a circuit diagram for the shown equipment.

Ans – Dry cell is used in the given equipment. 
Q 7. Which of the following bulb will not glow in the arrangement shown in the figures? Give reason for each.
Ans – Bulb A will glow as circuit is correct and complete.
          Bulb B will not glow as one end of the wire is connected to glass of the bulb which is insultor and will not allow current to pass to the filament.
          Bulb C will not glow as two same terminals of the cells are connected which will not allow passage of current.
          Bulb D will not glow as two ends of the wires are connected to the same terminal of the bulb.

Q 8. Why solar panels are used as a source of electricity in the spacecrafts?
Ans -  Solar panels are devices that convert sunlight into electricity. In space most of the time, the most powerful source of light available is the Sun A solar panel is a collection of solar cells. Lots of small solar cells spread over a large area can work together to provide enough power to be useful. The more light that hits a cell, the more electricity it produces, so spacecraft are usually designed with solar panels that can always be pointed at the Sun.

Q 9. What will happen if we connect two cells instead of one in a circuit?
Ans-A cell or battery can push an electric current through a lamp. The bigger the voltage, the bigger the push. A bigger push gives a bigger current and the lamp shines more brightly. Each lamp is labelled with the biggest voltage it can survive. With too many volts, the current is too big and the lamp will burn out.

Q.10. Give reason: electric current flows from positive to negative.
Ans –Electrons have negative charge. Therefore they move from negative terminal to the positive terminal (i.e in the opposite direction to the conventional current). This is what is happening in the wires. However, we still use the convention that: electric current flows from positive to negative

Q 11. What happens in the eletric circuit?
Ans – In an electric circuit electric current flows. An electric current is a flow of electric charge around a circuit. The charge is already in the wires (carried by billions of tiny particles called electrons). This charge is evenly spread out through the wires. As soon as you close the switch, the cell starts to push on the charge. So all the charge starts moving at once.

Monday, October 26, 2015

The Village school Master(Summary)

                          The Village School Master
:Beside yon straggling fence that skirts the way
With blossom’d furze unprofitably gay,
There, in his noisy mansion, skill’d to rule,
The village master taught his little school;
A man severe he was, and stern to view,
I knew him well, and every truant knew;
Well had the boding tremblers learn’d to trace
The days disasters in his morning face

The village school master ran his little school in a small village. It was situated next to the irregular fence that fringed the village path with full blossomed, beautiful but ornamental flowers. He was not only a very strict disciplinarian but also a severe person to observe. He was familiar to the poet and all other absentees because they had suffered the master’s anger. His face was to be carefully examined. The trembling pupils would gaze at his face to sense his present frame of mind. The day’s misfortunes were written on his forehead or in between the eyebrows.

Full well they laugh'd with counterfeited glee,
At all his jokes, for many a joke had he:
Full well the busy whisper, circling round,
Convey'd the dismal tidings when he frown'd:
Yet he was kind; or if severe in aught,
The love he bore to learning was in fault.
The village all declar'd how much he knew;
'Twas certain he could write, and cipher too

The school master was a contradiction. Although he was stern, he was kind and good- humoured. He had a store of jokes. When he told them, the children burst out in fake laughter, under the pretext that the jokes were awfully hilarious. If the children observed a frown on his forehead, they circulated the gloomy news throughout the classroom in an undertone. But he was in essence a kind man. If at all he d any fault, it was his intense love for learning. He wanted his pupils to become genuine scholars and hence, he had to be demanding with them.

Lands he could measure, terms and tides presage,
And e'en the story ran that he could gauge.
In arguing too, the parson own'd his skill,
For e'en though vanquish'd he could argue still;
While words of learned length and thund'ring sound
Amazed the gazing rustics rang'd around;
And still they gaz'd and still the wonder grew,
That one small head could carry all he knew.
But past is all his fame. The very spot
Where many a time he triumph'd is forgot.

The villagers were unanimous in their opinion that he really was a learned and an extremely knowledgeable man. He without doubt could write and also work out sums in arithmetic. He could also survey land, forecast weather and tides. Besides, he was able to measure the content of a vessel. The parson approved of his skill in debate.Even if defeated, the school master would keep on arguing. He would become more fervent and would fling booming words at his adversary. The uncomprehending villagers would be convinced that the school master was establishing his standpoint very thoroughly. They stood round the two debaters and witnessed the verbal duel. They were awestruck when they heard the high-sounding and incomprehensible words used by the school master. They gawked at him and wondered how his small head could keep that enormous hoard of knowledge.


Friday, October 16, 2015


Q1. Who was the founder of the Gupta dynasty?
Ans. Sri Gupta
Q2. Who was the father of Chandragupta I?
ANS. Ghatotkacha
Q3. What is the meaning of Maharajadhiraja?
ANS. The great king of kings.
Q4. How did Chandragupta I strengthen his empire?
He consolidated his place by a matrimonial alliance by marrying Kumaradevi, a Licchavis princess.
Q5. What do the Puranas tell us about the Guptas?
ANS. The Puranas throw light on the royal genealogy of the Gupta kings.
Q6. Who visited India during the rule of Chandragupta II?
ANS. The Chinese traveller, Fa-hsien.
Q7. Where are the inscriptions related to  the  Gupta  dynasty  found?  What information do  these  inscriptions  provide?
ANS. Inscriptions such as the Mehrauli Iron Pillar inscription and the Allahabad Pillar inscription provides information on the reign of Chandragupta I and Samudragupta, respectively.
Q8. What information do we get from the Gupta coins?
ANS. Gupta coins impart significant facts about the titles and the sacrifices carried out by the Gupta Rulers.
Q9. What is known as Dakshinapatha expedition?
ANS. Samudragupta defeated twelve rulers in his South Indian expedition, known as Dakshinapatha expedition.
Q10. Why was Samudragupta also known as Kaviraja?
ANS. as he was a fine poet.
Q11. What do the coins issued by Samudragupta portray him as?
ANS. Playing the Veena which shows his inclination towards music.
Q12. Where did Samudragupta extend his rule?
Ans. Samudragupta’s rule extended over Eastern  Himalayan  states  and  bordering  states  such  as  Nepal,  Assam  and Bengal.  These territories were directly administered by him.  The forest territories situated  in  Vindhyas  known  as  Atavika  rajyas  were  brought  under  his  control.
The  Shakas  and  Kushanas  principalities  in  the  West  and  Northwest  were  within the sphere of his influence.The kingdoms on the East coast of the Deccan, as far as the Pallava Kingdom, recognized his suzerainty.
Q13. What were the reasons of the decline of Gupta empire?
Ans. Skandagupta was succeeded by weak rulers. They could not save the Gupta Empire from the Huns. Further, the empire was destabilized by the rise of the feudatories. Many of the feudatory states declared themselves independent. Trade and commerce was affected by these circumstances. The state revenue was also affected by the growing practice of giving land revenues for religious and other such purposes. By 6th century CE, the glory of the Gupta Empire completely vanished.
Q14. What do you know about Kumaragupta?
Ans. He was the son and successor of Chandragupta II. His reign was marked by general peace and prosperity and issued a number of coins and his inscriptions are found all over the Gupta Empire.
He also performed an asvamedha sacrifice. He laid the foundation of the Nalanda University.
Q15. Who succeeded Samudragupta? What was the title he assumed?
ANS. Chandragupta II ; Vikramaditya.
Q16. What was Samudragupta’s policy of military expedition that he adopted?
Ans. He used the policy of diplomacy and warfare to extend his territory, strengthened his political power through matrimonial alliances.
Q17. Whom did Chandragupta II marry?
Ans. He married Kuberanaga, a Naga princess of central India.
Q18. Whom did Chandragupta II give his daughter in marriage?
ANS. He gave his daughter Prabhavati in marriage to the Vakataka prince.
Q19. What does ‘Shakari’ mean?
ANS. ‘Enemy of Shakas’.
Q20. Who were his court poets?
ANS. Amarasimha and Kalidasa were his court poets.
Q21. To which dynasty did Harshavardhana belong?
Ans. To the Pushpabhuti Dynasty.
Q22. What are the important sources that help in reconstructing the history of Harshavardhana?
ANS. The sources of information are:
-          Harshacharita written by Banabhatta, the court poet of Harsha
-          And the travellogues of Hsuan Tsang, the Chinese traveller who visited India during his reign.
Q23. Name the plays written by Harsha.
Ans. The plays written by Harsha were Ratnavali, Nagananda and Priyardarshika .
Q24. Name the inscriptions that describe the chronology of Harsha’s time.
Ans. The Madhuben plate inscription and the Sonpat inscription describe the chronology of Harsha’s time.
Q25. Who were known as  Kumaramatyas?
Ans. A class of officials was known as Kumaramatyas.
a.       The provinces in the Gupta Empire were known as Bhuktis which governed by Uparikas chosen from among the princes.
b.      Bhuktis were subdivided into Vishayas or districts, which were governed by Vishayapatis.
c.       The Gramas or villages in the district were under the control of village headman or Gramikas.
d.      The village elders were known as Gramavriddhas.
Q27. Explain the military conquests of Harsha.
ANS. Harsha fought against rulers of Valabhi and made it a part of his territory. Regions such as modern Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha came under his direct control. The subsidiary states such as Kashmir, Sind, Valabhi and Kamarupa recognized his rule. As a result, Harsha controlled the whole of North India. However, his military campaign was brought to a halt by the Chalukyan ruler, Pulakesin II, who defeated him.
Q28. How did Harsha ascend the throne?
ANS. Prabhakaravardhana was the first ruler of Pushpabhuti dynasty. He was succeeded by his elder son, Rajyavardhana. His sister, Rajyasri, had married Grihavarman, the Maukhari ruler.
The ruler of Malwa, Devagupta in confederation with Sasanka, the ruler of Bengal, killed Grihavarman. On hearing the news, Rajyavardhana attacked the king of Malwa and defeated him.
However, he was deceitfully killed by Sasanka on his way to the capital.
Harsha succeeded his brother and decided to take revenge of the assassinations of his brother and brother-in-law. In his first military expedition, Harsha drove out Sasanka from Kanauj. He made Kanauj his new capital. This made him the most powerful ruler of North India.