Wednesday, August 26, 2015

4. Answer the following:
a. Enlist five uses of water
Ans - Water is used for irrigation.
-Water  is used in various industries like paper, chemical, fertiliser, textile and pharmaceuticals.
-Water is used by animals for digestion, absorption, excretion, regulate body temperature etc.
-Water is used for transport.
-Water is used for recreation.

b. Explain the importance of conservation of water
Ans -  As only 0.3% of fresh water is available for our use we should not waste and pollute water. We need to find innovative ways to reuse water for more than one purpose.

c. Name the different processes involved in a water cycle.
Ans-  Evaporation, transpiration, condensation and precipitation

d. Explain the role of transpiration in a water cycle.
Ans - The evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant is known as transpiration which accounts for 10% of total water vapour present in the air.

5. Define:
a. Ground water - Some of the rain water that falls soaks into the ground and stays there. this water absorbed in the ground is known as ground water.

b. Drought - It is a situation when a region receives below-average precipitation, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water.

c. Evaporation - It is the process of conversion of water form rivers, lakes, streams, wetland and oceans into water vapour because of sunlight 

d. Water pollution - it is the contamination of water due to industrial and domestic waste products.

6. Answer in detail:
a. Explain the importance and the process of rain water harvesting
Ans - Rain water harvesting is the technique to collect rain water and store it for future use. Rain water can be collected on rooftops. This water can be directed with pipes into water storage tanks or pits in low- lying areas to collect rain water. rain water can be collected in shallow trenches to enhance the absorption  of water into the soil. the harvested water can be filtered, disinfected and then used.

b. Describe the different sources of water.
Ans - 97% of the Earth’s water is in the oceans(saline water) which is not suitable for drinking, domestic or industrial use. The remaining 3% of water is fresh water. Out of this tiny fraction, almost 70% of water is frozen in ice caps or glaciers. The remaining 30% of the fresh water is found  as ground water,rain water and surface water. Surface water which is readily available for our use is only 0.3% of total fresh water. this includes water of rivers, lakes, ponds and streams.

c. Describe the different events in a water cycle.
Ans - Water cycle( Hydrologic cycle)  is the continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to the Earth and back to the atmosphere. different events of water cycle are:
1) Evaporation - It is the process of conversion of water form rivers, lakes, streams, wetland and oceans into water vapour because of sunlight.
2) Transpiration -The evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant is known as transpiration which accounts for 10% of total water vapour present in the air.
Hot air become lighter which carries water vapour high up in the sky. 
3) Condensation - The vapour starts condensing into water on the surface of dust particles present in the air due to reduced temperature. The clusters of water droplets in the air are visible as clouds.
4) Precipitation - The water droplets from clouds become bigger and heavier, they fall down on the Earth as rain, hail and snow. this process is known as precipitation.

a. Why do many vegetables get reduced in quantity when cooked?

Ans - Most of the vegetable contains water in good amount which get evaporated while cooking. This will lead to reduction in quantity of vegetable after cooking.

Monday, August 24, 2015


I.        Define:
            1. Mountains - Mountains are naturally elevated large mass of land forming peaks which occur in long narrow chains called ranges.
            2. Plateaus - Plateaus are uplifted sections of the earth's crust that are almost flat or level; usually descend steeply to the surrounding low lands also known as plain-in-the air or tableland.
            3. Plains - are vast, nearly flat , expanses of land, less than 200 meters above sea level.

II.     Answer the following questions:

1. Which forces cause movement below the ground and how?
Ans -Internal forces ( Endogenic forces) and External forces ( Exogenic forces) cause movement below the ground. The plates in the Earth crust are in constant motion and collide with each other due to internal forces. Slow movement within the earth are either caused by compression or by tension
2. Describe different types of mountains.
Ans - There are four types of mountains:-
            1) Fold mountains - formed when the layers of the earth's crust are folded by compression
which is caused by the forces generated by movements inside the earth. ex- Aravallis, Himalayas, etc.
            2)Volcanic mountains -when a volcano erupts, it gives out hot molten lava, ash, cinder and smoke vent is the opening from which the lava comes to the surface and solidify after cooling. ex - Mt. Fuji Japan.
            3) Block mountains -formed due to the forces of compression or tension, cracks or faults appear in the earth's crust when the land between two faults is pushed upwards above the surrounding level they form block mountain or horsts. ex -the Vosges and the Black Forest
            4) Residual mountains -Continuous erosion of old fold mountains or block mountains over the years forms residual mountains. ex - Mt. Monadnock in USA and Highlands of Scotland

3. How mountains are important for us?
Ans -   1) Rivers originate in mountains.
Home for a variety of flora and fauna.
Affect the climate of an area.
            4) Mountains are a store house of water. Many perennial rivers originate in the
            5) The river valleys and the gentle slopes of the mountains are used for cultivation
of crops and fruits.
            6) provide minerals for industries and stones for construction.
provide valuable softwood, medicine, herbs and other products.

            8) Mountains are very important for tourism.

4. Describe types of plateaus.

Ans - 1)  Techtonic Plateaus - Formed due to movements inside the earth, have considerable size and uniform altitude. They are of three types -
            a) Continental plateaus - Formed due to upliftment of a block of land from the adjacent lowland or sea. Ex - Chota Nagpur Plateau,           Plateau of South Africa, Meseta of Spain, etc.
            b) Intermontane Plateau - Surrounded by fold mountains. ex - Bolivian plateau between two ranges in Andes, Snake Plateau in Columbia, etc.
            c) Piedmont Plateau - Lies at the foot of mountains.  E.g. plateau of Patagonia in Argentina
2) Volcanic Plateaus - Molten lava erupts from the cracks on the Earths surface , solidifies on its surface in successive layers and forms plateaus. E.g. Deccan Plateau
3) Residual Plateaus -Formed by continuous erosion of an old fold mountain or block mountain by natural agents such as wind, rivers, rain etc.E.g. the Fjeld Plateau in Scandinavia, the Cumberland Plateau in the USA.

5. Explain the importance of plateaus?

Ans -    Plateaus are rich in mineral deposits. The African plateau is rich in gold, diamond, copper, uranium, etc. In India, the Deccan and the Chota Nagpur plateaus have vast reserves of coal, iron-ore, manganese, bauxite, etc.
-Rivers in the plateau regions form waterfalls as they drop abruptly down the steep slopes. These waterfalls are utilised for generation of hydroelectricity. The Victoria Falls in Africa, the Niagara Falls in North America and the Jog Falls in India are some examples.
-Volcanic plateaus are rich in black soil. They are very fertile and good crops like cotton and sugarcane.
-The natural beauty of plateau areas also attracts many tourists.

6. Explain the different types of plains.
Ans - 
1)       Depositional Plain: various agents of erosion (wind, rivers, glaciers etc.) deposit over the years , they form depositional plains. they are three types:
-  Alluvial plains: formed by deposition of water ; e.g. indo- Gangetic Plain(India)
-  Mississippi River Plain: formed by deposition of glaciers; e.g. plains of Indiana (North America)
-  Desert plains: formed by winds; e.g. Sahara desert
2) Structural Plain: Formed by internal forces that result in upliftment of the horizontal layers of the Earth. E.g. Central Lowlands of Australia and Great Plain of USA
3) Erosional Plains: carved when rivers , wind, glaciers etc erode asmoothens the irregularities of the Earths surface e.g. Interiors plains of Canada
4) Coastal Plains: Situated near the sea shore E.g. Malabar Coast along the Western Coast of India

7. Explain the importance of plains.
Ans - Most plains have fertile soil and are, thus, ideal for agriculture. River plains have abundant supply of water, which is very useful for human settlements. The flat surface of plains helps in the construction of transport network, buildings, industries, etc.
8. In which landform human beings settle and what changes they make to settle?
Ans - Human settlement are found in all kinds of landforms
            The flat surface of plains helps in the construction of transport network, buildings, industries, etc. Settlement also found in areas prone to natural disasters such as volcanoes, earthquake.Technology has helped in minimising the risk of staying in the such areas.
To establish settlement people have polluted air and water bodies, caused
deforestation and degradation of land. We should use natural resources carefully.

9. Explain the different types of minor landform.
Ans -
Minor landforms
piece of land surrounded by water on all sides
the Lakshadweep Islands, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
piece of land surrounded by water on three sides and joined to a larger land mass
the peninsular plateau of India, the Malay Peninsula
an elongated narrow piece of land with water on each side joining two large land masses
Isthmus of Panama, Isthmus of Suez

Word meanings and Q and Ans for Chap 4 VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY

Vocabulary Words: 

voyage: travelling by a sea or air

dawn: just before morning

defend: protect

accompany: go along

obstacles: difficulties

pursued: followed

glimpse: a quick sight

inedible: cannot be eaten

rind: the tough outer skin of certain fruits

imitate: act out

furiously: angrily

hurl: throw


Comprehension Questions:


1. Why did the narrator and his eldest son go on a discovery voyage?

The narrator and his eldest son went to look for traces of their ship companions and to examine the nature of the oil on the other side of the river.

2. Why did the narrator not take the other three children with them?

As they would be better able to defend themselves in any danger without

the children.

3. What did they carry with them on the journey?

They carried a bag for game, a hatchet, pistols, biscuits, a flask of fresh river water.

4. What did they discover after a few hours of the journey?

They discovered that the banks of the river were very steep and there was no real path on the other side.

5. What did Fritz’s sharp eye observe in the bushes?

His eyes observed that some of the trees were of a singular kind.

6. How is the bottle gourd useful?

It‘s rind can be used for making various utensils like plates, dishes, basins and


7. How did the narrator divide the bottle gourd into two?

 The narrator taught Fritz how to divide the gourd with a bit of string, which

would cut more equally than a knife. He tightly tied the string round the

middle of the gourd and striking it hard with the handle of the knife, he drew

it tighter and tighter, till it separated into two regular shaped bowls or vessels.


8. What did they do with the two pieces of bottle gourd?

They left them to dry in the sun, filling them with sand so that they did not

lose their shape.


9. What left the narrator and Fritz spellbound?

The sight of the sea gently moving by the waves in which the rays of the sun

were reflected and the woods, of various hues of greenness left them


Saturday, August 22, 2015


1. b 2. a 3. d 4. c 5. f 6. e7
QII. State whether true or false. If false correct the statement.
1. In a democracy judges must be unbiased and should
deliver justice objectively. True
2. The word Apartheid means unity. False
The word Apartheid means separation.
3. The work on the mines was reserved for the whites. True.
4. Mahatma Gandhi went to South America in 1893 to protest
against the democratic government.
Mahatma Gandhi went to South Africa in 1893 to protest
against the apartheid system..
5. The Apartheid system came to an end in 1976. False
The Apartheid system came to an end in 1994.

QIII. Find information on Nelson Mandela and write a few lines on
1. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandelawas a South African antiapartheid
revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who
served as President of South Africa.
2. On his 80th birthday in 1998 he married Graça Machel, his
third wife.
3. After suffering from a prolonged respiratory infection,
Mandela died on 5 December 2013 at the age of 95

QIV Give one word for the following phrases:
1. Evenness between rights of the majority and the minority –
2. Greek word for common people – Demos
3. Non-violence – Satyagraha
4. Type of Democracy in India – Indirect.

W S -S .sT Villages And Towns In Ancient India.

1. d 2. c 3. b 4. a l
QII. Choose the correct option from the bracket and fill in the
1. Tamralipti was a sea-port located on the mouth of the river
Ganga. (Tamralipti/Vaishali)
2. The introduction of the monetary system facilitated the
growing commerce and trading specializations.
3.Sanskrit developed as the language of the Brahamans and
some scholarly people. (Prakrit/Sanskrit)
4.The life in villages and towns is described in the Ashtadhyayi by
Panini. (Ashtadhyayi/Kathasaritasagara)
5.Fa-hsein mentioned the several monasteries and shrines
situated in Vaishlai. (HsuanTsang/Fa-hsein)
Q.III Answer the following
1. Name the two important land routes in ancient times.
The Northern route Uttarapatha and the Southern route
Dakshinapatha were the two important land routes in ancient
2. Why were the punch marked coins so called?
The punch marked coins were so called because they were
manufactured by striking a single or multiple punches on the
surface of the coin.
3. What does the Buddhist text Tripitaka consist?
Tripitak is based on the life of Gautam Buddha and throws light
on the life in ancient India.
QIV Complete the mind map below.

Another name
Members could work
together and share a close
knit relationship.
Names ofany
two guilds
Potter’s guild
weaver’s guild
Settling disputes,
ies and
obligations and
QV Imagine you lived in ancient India. Which place would you like to live in and why?
I would love to live in Kausambhi as it has been mentioned as
one of the prosperous towns. It also has many evidences of
historic significance. I would love to witness The Ashokan Pillar,
the Ghositarma monastery and the presence of the two major
dynasties the Mauryas and the Guptas whose presence has
been confirmed thourgh the archaeological evidences.
QVI Classify the names of the towns given below into the correct
type of urban centres and write them in their respective houses

Coastal Religious