Friday, February 5, 2016

Geography           L - 10 Vulnerable Earth
Q1. What do you mean by disaster? Name types of disasters.
Ans -A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. There are two types of disasters - natural and man - made.
Q2. Enumerate types of natural and man - made disasters.
Ans - Natural disaster include -
a) Flood - Water level rises on the land above the safety mark.
b) Drought - Area with little or no rainfall
c) Earthquake - Two earth tectonic plates collide with each other.
d) Cyclones - Storm occurring due to difference in temperature and pressure of air
e) Landslide - large mass of rock or land sliding down the hill
f) Volcanic Eruptions - Sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material
g) Tsunamis - Destructive sea waves caused by an earthquake or volcanic eruption under the sea.
Man - made disaster include -
a) Biological - releasing germs of deadly diseases.
  b) Nuclear - Use of nuclear weapons
c) Terrorism - attacks by using high amount of explosives.
d) Chemical - Human activities and industrial wastes polluting air, water and land.

Q3. What is flood disaster and when do floods occur? 
Ans -The danger caused by the flood is known as flood disaster. In other words, heavy loss of life and property due to excess of water is known as flood. Floods are said to occur when water rises above the safety level and overflows in the surrounding areas.
Q4. What causes floods and what are its effects?
Ans - Floods are caused by heavy rainfall, cyclones, cloud burst, inadequate drainage 
system, bursting of dams, overflowing of rivers, melting of snow, etc.
Devastating effects of floods are loss of life and property, damage to crops, breakdown of communication, dislocation of transport system

Q5. What are riverine floods?
Ans - Most of the floods in India are caused by overflowing of the rivers during the South - West Monsoon season (June to September). These are called riverine floods.
Q6. How does the Disaster Management Team help in flood preparedness?
Ans - They visit various parts of the country to create awareness about floods and how to deal with it? These team teach people – especially women of the areas, through demonstrations on how to save lives during floods, how to build temporary houses, how and where to store food at higher level, etc.
Q7. What are the steps that should be taken before floods?
Ans - Keep a check on weather forecast and flood warnings through radio, TV, newspaper etc, Locate safe shelters at higher level, also for animals in rural areas. Keep first aid box, candles, ropes, matchbox, torch, some clothes, etc handy, Keep some food in stock
Q8. What are the steps that should be taken after floods?
Ans - Drink boiled water, do not use crops that are wet, always keep food covered, try to disinfect the surroundings as it can be a breeding ground for mosquitoes, be careful of snake bites in water logged areas.
Q9. Give reason - droughts known as ‘slow onset disasters’
Ans - Drought occurs gradually over a period of time and so it is predictable.
Q10. What are the various causes of drought? 
Ans - Deficient rainfall, delay in onset of rainfall, timely onset of rainfall and sudden break and early withdrawal of monsoons.
Q11. What are effects of droughts?
Ans - Droughts influence mankind in the following ways: 
a) Reservoirs- wells, rivers, ponds, lakes, etc, dry up. Thus availability of water is very low for survival.
b) Vegetation - drying up of vegetation of the region.
c) Employment- India is an agriculture based country. Fall in agricultural production results in low employment opportunities for rural people. This is followed by migration of rural people to other areas in search of food and employment.
d) Diseases- starvation, hunger and malnutrition especially among children may lead to spread of various diseases such as dysentery, diarrhoea, etc.
e) poor families - Low yield of crops lead to less supply of crops in the market, high rates of food grains.
f) loss of life of humans and animal
g) farmers - loss of crops, cattle and fodder, low agricultural production.

Q12. What is the role of the DMT? 
Ans - Help the victims of disasters by actively taking part in rescue operations, and by providing food, shelters, medicines, first - aid, clothes, etc
Q13. Mention few Disaster Management Agencies.
 Ans -Help Age India, American Red Cross Society, Children’s Disaster Services, the World Vision, etc.
Q14. What Value do we get from this lesson?
Ans - We should respect nature. The creator of the world has blessed us with various natural resources. We should not exploit them but use them according to our needs. Animals and birds should not be killed for our luxurious purposes and should be taken care of. 
Q15. How can human efforts can help to curb the effects of drought?
Ans - Planned use of water, Minimising water wastage, conservation of natural water reservoirs, Undertaking water harvesting techniques and more plantations of trees.
Fill in the blanks-
1. Vast population and unique geographical characteristics makes India a ‘Disaster - prone’ country.
2. The North- Eastern part of the country is referred as the flood prone areas.
3. Drought affected area receive rainfall less than 25% of the average annual  rainfall.
4. On December 05, 2013, winter storm hits Britain and Ireland and brought devastating floods.
Map Work -

On the Political map of India mark 5 flood prone zone with green color and 5 drought prone zone with yellow color.

Thursday, February 4, 2016 SUBSISTENCE LIVING IN THE CITY

  1. What are primary occupations?
    Occupations based on natural resources
  2. Give three examples of primary occupations.
    Hunting, collection of forest produce, animal rearing, fishing, farming, agriculture and mining.
  3. What are secondary occupations?
    Occupations which transform primary goods into goods which are directly useful to man.
  4. Give example of secondary occupations.
    Manufacturing industries
  5. What are tertiary occupations?
    These are occupations that render the services.
  6. Give example of tertiary occupations.
    Teaching, railways.
  7. What can be seen at Bhuleshwar?
    One can see hordes of buildings along with ancient temples and trading institutions.
  8. How does the city get its name?
    The city gets its name from Mumbadevi whose temple is located here.
  9. Describe the streets of Bhuleshwar.
    The streets are tapered and are always packed with people at any time of the day
  10. Why is the place known as heaven for shopaholics?
    One can fi nd a wide range of things sold here, right from clothing, and swanky jewellery to fruits, fl owers and vegetables at an affordable price. The place is surrounded by other main market areas of Mumbai. Mahatma Phule Market which is situated nearby is famous for its fruit and vegetable market; Mangaldas Market for garments; Zaveri Bazaar for jewellery and Dhabu Street for leather products. Chor Bazaar and Mutton Street located nearby are well known for their antiques and furniture shops.
  11. Define migration.
    Migration is the movement of people from one place to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi permanent residence.
  12. What are the push factors for migration?
    Few job opportunities, Lower wages, Crop failure, Poor health facilities, Poor educational services)
  13. Who is Baburao?
    Baburao is one of the many workers who have migrated to Mumbai in search of employment.
  14. From which region did he migrate and why?
    He migrated from the Marathawada region in Maharashtra after the region suffered perennial drought situation.
  15. Who are Naka workers?
    Naka workers are those who assemble on the nakas in the morning, from 6 AM to 8 AM. They wait in nakas until they get work from a labour contractor to work in the construction sector or get hired for work such as masons, carpenters, plumbers, and helpers.
  16. What is jhuggi?
    A thatched tiny residential unit, without any sanitation facility.
  17. Describe the working conditions of Baburao.
    Baburao says that the working hours are too long and there is no job security. Because of their working environment, their health scenario is also not good. He does have access to local government hospitals for treatment. If he does not unwell, he does not earn for that particular day.


1-What is the temple at Bhitargaon made of?
 The temple at Bhitargaon was made of terracotta and brick
2- Describe the Deogarh temple.
The Deogarh temple is placed on a large terraced platform with four corner shrines and its shikhara or spire is about 12 metres high. The sculptural ornamentation on the main doorway includes different types of designs such as birds, attendants, svastikas and foliated scrolls.
3-Name two temples of Pallava architecture.
 The Shore temple at Mahabalipuram and Kailashnath temple at Kanchi are the finest specimens of Pallava architecture.
4- What is a stupa?
 A stupa is a commemorative building usually housing sacred relics associated with important saintly figures
5-What are Ajanta Caves famous for?
wall paintings
6- What were the Ajanta caves used by the Buddhist monks?
They were used as monasteries by the Buddhist monks who took refuge at such isolated places during the rainy season. They also provided the monks with enough time for broadening their spiritual quest through scholarly discussions.
7-What is the central topic of the paintings?
The central topic of the paintings is the illustration of various Jataka stories, several events connected with the life of the Buddha, as well as contemporary events and social life.
8.What is Sangam literature?
The earliest literature of South India is a collection called the Sangam literature.
9. What do we know from the Sangam literature?
Tamil in the form of poems and songs. The Sangam literature gives picture of the conditions that prevailed in South India during the ancient times.
10. Describe Arthashastra.
Arthashastra is written by Kautilya. It is a treatise on statecraft, administration and inter-state relations in detail.
11.What is Ashvagosha famous for?
Ashvagosha was one of the great writers who received patronage of the Kushans. He is known for writing the biography of the Buddha, Buddhcharita as well as composing Saundarananda, a fine example of Sanskrit Kavya
12.What are Puranas?
The Puranas were collection of myths, theoretical discourses and description of rituals. They offer valuable source of historical information.There are eighteen Great Puranas and eighteen Lesser Puranas.
13.What did Aryabhatta prove?
Aryabhatta proved that Earth revolves around the Sun and rotates on its own axis)
14.What was Aryabhatta’s confirm about the heavenly bodies?
Aryabhatta confirmed that heavenly bodies such as the Moon are spherical and shine
because of the light reflected from the Sun. He also evaluated the time taken by
the Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun.

·         Temples built during the Gupta period: Deogadh and Bhitargao
· Temple at Mahabalipuram constructed by the Pallavas: The Shore temple
· Stupa situated in Sarnath: Dhamekh
· Caves near Gaya: Barabar Caves
· Wrote the biography of the Buddha: Ashvagosha
· Two great epics: Ramayana and Mahabharata

· book on mathematics by Brahmagupta: Brahmasphutasiddhanta

Sunday, January 24, 2016

Answer the following questions
Q1. ‘Things around us are changing continuously.’ Justify the given statement.
Q2. How will you identify a change?
Q3. What bring about changes? Give 2 – 2 examples for each.
Q4. Broadly classify changes into different categories.
Q5. Explain how physical and chemical changes are useful in your daily life.
Q6. Can physical and chemical change occur simultaneously? Give one example other then the example given in the textbook.
Q7. Give reason:
a)      Rusting of Iron is chemical change.
b)      When urea is added to water, the beaker becomes cool.
Q8. Fill in the blanks
a)      Gases such as Oxygen and nitrogen under_______________ and ______ conditions turn into liquids.
b)      Fossil fuels are formed by _________ change.
c)      When we add baking soda to vinegar, it results in release of _______________.
d)      ____________ are the changes where the original form cannot be restored.
Q9. Identify and write the type of change
a)      Blackening of silver ornaments. ____________________
b)      Melting of wax.__________________
c)      Rotation of Moon around the Earth.________________
d)      Breaking of glass bowl._______________
e)      Photosynthesis.____________
f)       Cooking of vegetables.________________
g)      Making car from blocks._______________.

Friday, January 22, 2016

Swiss family robinson chap10

Comprehension Questions:

1 What was the narrator’s first thought next morning?
Ans His first thought was to fetch the sledge from the wood
2 What was his motive for leaving it there?
Ans The narrator wanted to go a little further into the land and ascertain whether
 anything useful would present itself beyond the wall of rocks.
3 What did they find on their journey towards the sledge?
Ans They found a pretty grove whose branches were loaded with berries covered with
sticky wax.
4 How did the narrator find India rubber?
 Ans While they were busy picking berries another tree caught the narrator’s attention.
He noticed that the fruit it bore resembled the wild figs. The trunk of the tree oozed
gum which became immediately hardened by the air. Fritz collected some of it and as
they continued their journey, he pulled it like elastic. It quickly dawned upon the
narrator that it was in fact India rubber which would be very useful to them.
5 What made it almost impossible for them to proceed further?
Ans  The thick bushes of bamboo.
6 How did the narrator make candles?
Ans He put as many berries into the vessel as it would contain and set it on a moderate
 flame. His wife helped him make some wicks with the thread from the sail cloth.
 When they noticed the oily matter rise to the top, they skimmed it off and put it into a
Separate vessel. They continued this process till they had produced a considerable
quantity of wax. Then, they dipped the wicks one by one into it, and hung them on the
bushes to harden. They burnt one of the candles that evening and were very satisfied
with light it produced. 
7 What encouraged them to make butter?
Ans Their success making candles encouraged them to make butter
8 Why did the narrator want to construct a cart?
Ans As the sledge caused him much fatigue to load and draw.
9 Why did the narrator think of blowing up the wreck?
Ans The narrator think of blowing up the wreck so that the timbers themselves drifted


Wednesday, January 13, 2016 notes-PASTORAL LIVING

1.       What are the other major occupations in the villages?
Animal husbandry, fishing and dairy development
2.       what is irrigated farming?
Crops are grown during the summer season with the Help of irrigation. This type of farming is known as irrigated farming.
3.       what is nabard? How does it help the farmers?
Nabard is the national bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. It grants monetary aid for agricultural activities.
4.      What are the other jobs except farming that people do in villages?
Poultry,rearing cows and goats, fishing, weaving, etc.
5.      What is animal husbandry?
Animal husbandry includes domestication of animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, camels, horses, donkeys and yaks.
6.       Why are animals reared?
To obtain animal yields such as milk, meat, wool and skin.
7.      How do women play an important role in dairy development?
They care, feed and milk the animals. They work together with men and contribute to family earnings.
8.       What steps are taken by the government?
Steps are taken to boost women’s leadership skills, encourage savings and contribute to women’s empowerment. In some states, dairy cooperatives are formed with membership as well as the management entirely composed of women milk producers.
9.      Where is fishing carried out?
Fishing is carried on in rivers, lakes, seas, creeks and oceans
10.  How many marine fishing villages do we have in India?
11.  What is the number of people involved in marine fishing?
There are 9 lakh people involved in active fishing
12.  List the fishing related occupations. (People are involved with
fishing related occupations such as net mending, marketing of fish, peeling, curing, and preservation and processing.
13. What is the number of people involved in fishing related activities?
14. 15 lakh
15. Where is Bastar situated ?
Bastar is situated in the state of Chhattisgarh
16. How many different tribes can we find in Bastar?
40 different tribes
17. What is Bastar known for?
I t is known for its vibrant tribal markets known as haats
18. What is Chapura?

Chapura, a chutney made from red ants and chilies, is the peculiar delicacy here. One can see people eating hundreds of live red ants given on a leaf




Q1. What do you know about Milinda?
Ans. The important ruler of the Bactrians was Menander, also known as Milinda. He extended his rule up to Mathura and made Sakala, present day Sialkot, his capital. He converted to Buddhism and his dialogues with the Buddhist monk Nagasena were recorded in the book, Milinda Panho or (Questions of Milinda).

Q2. Name the five different groups of Shakas.
Ans. There were five different groups of Shakas – one from Taxila; second in Punjab, third in Mathura, fourth in Western India and fifth in the Deccan.

Q3. Who was the famous Parthian king?
Ans. Gondophernes was the famous Parthian king.

Q4. Who were the first to use the term Hindustan?
Ans. The Sassanians, were the first to use the term Hindustan in their inscription in 226 CE.

Q5. How did Kanishka support Buddhism?
Ans. Mahayana Buddhism became popular during the reign of Kanishka.
-       He sent missionaries to Central Asia and China for propagation of Buddhism and built chaityas and viharas in different places.
-       He supported Buddhist scholars such as Vasumitra and Asvagosha.
-       The Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir was organized by Kanishka.

Q6. What was the Silk Road?
Ans. The Silk Road was a trade route that connected East Asia to the Mediterranean.

Q7. What goods were transported with the help of the Silk Road?
Ans. Silk, porcelain, furs, perfumes, spices, medicine, jewels, glassware, slaves, and horses

Q8. Which goods were imported to China?
Ans. Goods such as dates, saffron powder, pistachio nuts, frankincense, and myrrh, gold, silver and ivory were imported to China.

Q9. Name the Chinese pilgrims who came to India? Why did they come to India?
Ans. The Chinese pilgrims such as Hsuan Tsang, Fa-hsein and It-sing travelled from
China to India in search of Buddhist scriptures.

Q10. What does the book Kautilya informs us through his book Arthashastra?
Ans. Kautilya, in his book the Arthashastra informs us of the Board of Shipping and the
Commissioner of Port who supervised sea traffic. The Arthashastra has an entire
chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha. Shoreline
trade was carried out not only between different parts of India but also with
Eastern and Western world.

Q11. What information does Harivamsa gives us?
Ans. The Harivamsa informs that the first geographical survey of the world was performed during the period of Vaivasvata.

Q12. The Indians played a major part as middlemen between the Chinese and the
Romans. Explain.
Ans. The Chinese traded their silk with the Indians for precious stones, gold and silver and then the Indians would trade silk with the Romans.

Q13. What is the term “Greater India’ used to denote?
Ans. The term ‘Greater India’ is used to denote the historical spread of the culture of India beyond the Indian subcontinent.

Q14. How the cultural relationship between South East Asia and India can be
Ans. The cultural relationship between South East Asia and India can be established through the transmission of ancient Vedic and Buddhist culture and philosophy into Myanmar, Thailand, Malaya, Laos and Cambodia. Indian scripts were found in South East Asian islands such as Sumatra, Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and parts of the Philippines.

Q15. What subjects were taught in the Nalanda University?
Ans. Various subjects such as theology, grammar, logic, astronomy, metaphysics and philosophy were taught here.

Q16. Name the Buddhist monk with whom Milinda discussed about Buddhism.
Ans. The Buddhist monk is Nagasena.

Q17. Name the book which shows a record of their dialogues.
Ans. Milinda Panho or (Questions of Milinda)

Q18. Who was the most important ruler of the Shakas? What did he issue in
Ans. The important ruler of the Shakas was Rudradaman I. He was a great patron of Sanskrit and issued the fi rst ever long inscription in Sanskrit.

Q19. Who visited during the reign of Gondophernes to propagate Christianity?
Ans. St. Thomas visited India to propagate Christianity.

Q20. Describe the empire of Kanishka.
Ans. The empire of Kanishka was a vast one extending from Gandhara in the west to Benares in the East and from Kashmir in the North to Malwa in the South. His capital was Purushapura or modern day Peshawar. Mathura was another important city in his empire.

Q21. State two reasons why the Silk Road was important.
Ans. It served as the primary path of commerce for the states from 200 BCE till the 14th century. It enabled people to transport goods such as silk, porcelain, furs, perfumes, spices, medicine, jewels, glassware, slaves, and horses.

Q22. Between whom was the Shoreline trade carried out?
Ans. Shoreline trade was carried out not only between different parts of India but also with Eastern and Western world.

Q23. Describe the Nalanda University
Ans. Nalanda University, the ancient seat of learning, was founded in the middle of fifth century CE. According to one account, there were 2,000 teachers and 10,000 students at Nalanda. Various subjects such as theology, grammar, logic, astronomy, metaphysics and philosophy were taught here.

The University was maintained by the revenue collected from the villages granted by the rulers of that period. Emperor Harshavardhana was one of its most famous patrons. Nalanda attracted many foreign students including Hsuan Tsang and It-sing from China. Hsuan Tsang had studied here and described the excellence of education system,
ascetic life practised as well as the ambiance and architecture of the university.